LAB 2: SHARK INTEGUMENTARY & SKELETAL SYSTEMS
Pp. 31 - 48; 82 - 92
1) Skin and Placoid Scales: Look at the whole mount and cross section of the placoid scales/ skin. Be able to identify a placoid scale.
External Features: Be able to identify: pectoral fin, pelvic fin, head, trunk, tail (caudal fin), dorsal fins, lateral line, ampullae of Lorenzini, mouth, spiracle, gill slits, cloaca, urogenital/urinary papilla, clasper. NB: You are responsible for being able to tell the difference between male and female sharks based on external anatomy.
2) Elasmobranchii - Shark Skeleton :
Vertebral Column : Neural spine, neural canal, neural arch, centrum (look at a cross section of your shark to see these in more detail)
Dorsal fins - ceratotrichia & fin spine (which has been cut on your specimen)
Caudal fin .
Pectoral Girdle & Fins: Scapulocoracoid bar, coracoid bar, basal cartilages (pterygiophores; not individual elements); radial cartilages (pterygiophores), ceratotrichia
Pelvic Girdle & Fins: Puboischiac (Ischiopubic) bar, metapterygium, ceratotrichia, clasper
Chondrocranium : Know the following structures - Rostrum, Olfactory capsule, orbits, antorbital and postorbital processes; otic capsule; endolymphatic fossa; basal plate, Optic foramen, superficial opthalmic foramina; foramen magnum, occipital condyles; glossopharyngeal foramen, vagus foramen. Find the optic pedicel (or know where it should be located if it has been broken off the dried chondrocranium).
Splanchnocranium: Mandibular arch, palatopterygoquadrate (or simply palatoquadrate) cartilage; labial cartilage, Meckels cartilage, orbital process. Hyoid arch, hyomandibular cartilage; Visceral arches three to seven, pharyngobranchial cartilage, epibranchial cartilage, ceratobranchial, hypobranchial and basibranchial cartilages; gill rakers and gill rays, teeth.